The Global Energy and Climate Policy course offers an introduction to the theoretical and practical understanding of how energy and climate change policies are designed, shaped, advocated and implemented. As energy markets go truly global, domestic energy policies are becoming more and more entangled with wider issues of international governance. Concurrently, the urgent need to mitigate and adapt to climate change and transition to a low-carbon future is adding a further layer of complexity.
This week introduces the concept of a carbon-constrained world, considering how it links to energy policies and the future of fossil fuels. It will also discuss the role of technologies such as carbon capture and storage (CCS) and how different stakeholders, in developed and developing countries, perceive the need to decarbonize energy systems.
Renewable electricity can directly heat and cool buildings and power trains and cars (direct electrification). This is called decarbonisation: renewable electricity replaces oil and gas for heating, cooling, and powering battery-electric trains and cars and thus, the element carbon is no longer involved.
When molecules are necessary, Electrolysis splits water (H2O) into its components hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). This water needs to be purified before it is fed to the electrolyser (water processing). For example, seawater must be desalinated for hydrogen production. Pure hydrogen can then serve as energy storage to compensate for intermittency of renewables in the electricity system (backup power) or be used as fuel for high processes temperatures, for example in the glass or cement industry, or as reduction agent, for example in the steel industry. Here, we are also talking about decarbonisation since the element carbon is directly substituted by hydrogen.
Swing Adsorption extracts nitrogen (N2) from the ambient air. Multiple processes to produce green ammonia exist, the most known is the Haber-Bosch synthesis. In all, hydrogen (H2) is combined with nitrogen (N2) and converted into ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is a key feedstock for the fertiliser industry, therefore crucial for food production and farming, for explosives in mining, but also in the chemical industry for cosmetics and pharma and as a fuel in maritime shipping. No carbon involved, meaning decarbonisation.
To produce sustainable synthetic hydrocarbons (CxHy), renewable carbon (C) is needed. The carbon can either stem from non-fossil, renewable sources, such as direct air capture (DAC) and biogenic residues or be recycled from unavoidable industrial point sources (Carbon Capture and Use from Industry, CCU), for example from cement plants. There are different processes to produce synthetic hydrocarbons, the most known is the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. In the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, carbon (C) is processed to form all kinds of hydrocarbons, or a kind of synthetic crude oil often called syn-crude. Further processed, the syn-crude can be turned into specific products, such as Jet-fuel for aircrafts (Power-to-Liquid Sustainable Aviation Fuel, PtL-SAF; Fischer-Tropsch Hydroprocessed Synthesised Paraffinic Kerosene, FT-SPK; Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics, FT-SPK/A). Synthetic hydrocarbons in different forms can defossilise the chemical industry, cosmetics, and pharma production as well as maritime shipping and aviation.
As carbon is still necessary in this process, it is called defossilisation instead of decarbonisation. The crucial transformation is the switch from fossil to renewable carbon.
Even before millions were confined to their homes by a global pandemic, improvements in internet connections and service offerings had led to an exponential increase in the use of streaming video around the world. With few options left for entertainment, streaming services are taking off. In this commentary, we examine the carbon footprint of these services.
Streaming services are associated with energy use and carbon emissions from devices, network infrastructure and data centres. Yet, contrary to a slew of recent misleading media coverage, the climate impacts of streaming video remain relatively modest, particularly compared to other activities and sectors.
But as the chart above shows, this figure depends heavily on the generation mix of the country in question. In France, where around 90% of electricity comes from low-carbon sources, the emissions would be around 2gCO2e, equivalent to 10 metres of driving.
The electricity mix is also rapidly decarbonising in many parts of the world. For instance, the emissions intensity of electricity in the UK fell by nearly 60% between 2008 and 2018. Compared to 2019 levels, global emissions intensity of electricity falls by around a quarter by 2030 in the IEA Stated Policies Scenario and by half in the Sustainable Development Scenario.
It is becoming increasingly likely that efficiency gains of current technologies may be unable to keep pace with this growing data demand. To reduce the risk of rising energy use and emissions, investments in RD&D for efficient next-generation computing and communications technologies are needed, alongside continued efforts to decarbonise the electricity supply.
Streaming video is a fairly low-emitting activity, especially compared to driving to a cinema, for instance. As consumers, we can further reduce our environmental footprint by using smaller devices and screens, which consume less electricity. Replacing devices less often can also help, since the production phase accounts for around 80% of the lifecycle carbon emissions of mobile devices (and about a third for televisions), and electronic waste is a growing problem across the world.
The MOOC will start on 8th March 2021 and will last 5 weeks. The objective is to provide knowledge about the technical concepts and innovation challenges of a decarbonized energy mix for mitigating climate change impacts.
This course is intended for students and professionals willing to learn about developing a decarbonized energy mix based on both renewables and natural gas, underground CO2 and energy storage, energy efficiency and CO2 abatements in processes.
The catalogue lists titles by their original language. It allows you to find French films, to study French, and German films to study German etc. By using one of the listed titles, you should have good subtitles that match the audio.
ENGIE is a global energy player, focused on Renewable energy andlow carbon distributed energy infrastructures , helping its clients to achieve their decarbonisation targets. Through our industrial approach and guided by our corporate purpose, we are in a unique position to build the low-carbon energy system of tomorrow and meet the challenges of climate change.
We are strengthening our commitment to decarbonisation by following a trajectory in line with the Paris Agreement and by helping our clients achieve a 45 Mt reduction in their CO2 emissions per year by 2030.
This is probably the most confusing part as there are a lot of abbreviations used in the cinema listings in France. But this is where you can choose whether you want to see the film dubbed in French or in its original language with French subtitles and whether you want to see it in 3D or not. If you are in a medium to larger town and want to see an international movie (not made in France), there will likely be at least one theater nearby showing it in v.o. and one showing it in v.f.
v.o. -or- version originale -or- VOSTF -or- version originale sous-titrée en français = original version that has NOT been dubbed in French (in original film language may it be English, German, Hindi, etc.) but will have French subtitles
Otherwise, the experience was much like we have had all over the United States. While it would have been nice to watch an actual French film, we would have needed English subtitles to really enjoy it, especially as tired as we were that evening. However, since I associate F. Scott Fitzgerald (the writer of The Great Gatsby) with the time he spent in Paris, it felt like a good fit.
We are an organisation called Lost in Frenchlation and our objectives are to bring the best of French cinema to the English-speaking people in Paris by showing French films with English subtitles, and to facilitate the international community meeting each other as well as native Parisians.
We are holding monthly screening of French films with English subtitles at independent cinemas in Paris, with a convivial cocktail hour before the movie for catching up with friends. We are writing to you because we believe that we are offering an experience that your English-speaking community have been denied for a frustratingly long time (we know from experience).
I would appreciate it if you would introduce me to some sources of free downloadable videos/films in the French language accompanied by French subtitles (either treating of mathematics or of any general subject).
I recently started searching for French movies with French subtitles to learn the language. Filmfra.com seems to be dead, but I found LookMovie. Here you can find many movies in many different languages, French included.
EDIT: They aren't downloadable, at least not easily. Perhaps you could download them by pasting the link into some downloader, or find the movie elsewhere and download the subtitles separately from OpenSubtitles. 59ce067264